廣告贊助

 從歷史上演進的證據得知(為什麼會有聯邦的形成,是由於外在的種種威脅,故村落、居民、各城市等等聯合組成一個大聯盟來保護自己),聯邦制有以下特徵:

1、一部成文憲法:將政府權限與組成作一區分,給予每一正府實質上的權力。

2、政府層級:各層級透過自身機制組織,運用權力於其轄區內的公民。(在聯盟的國家中,中央層級政府是可直接行使權力於人民上)

3、憲法權力的分配不能片面、單方的、由任何層級或透過一般程序被做改變(為的是保障地方政府)

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三種政府型態的特徵,優缺點:

 ※  單一政府的優點←→聯邦政府的缺點(反之亦然)

一、Unitary Government Advantages單一政府的優點
 ※  沒有州政府,所有重要的權力都落在中央

1、國家的方向很清楚,政策可由中央政府來決定,不需與地方政府協調或衝突。

2、責任誰該負責不會模糊不清,選民清楚知道各級政府應負何種問題責任,可選出自己希望解決特定問題或建設的政府。

3、有效的節省成本,避免立法、官僚和程序上的浪費。

4、議題比較公正,各層級間的財務將被有效館哩,即不會有各級政府間預算編列的不公問題產生。



二、Federal Government Advantages聯邦政府的優點
 ※  中央政府與若干州政府之間的權力是共享的

1、有更大範圍的多樣性和實驗性

2、議題有較多的時間討論之,取代立即制可能產生的犯錯危險。這造成了漸進主義,對民主政治是不可或缺的。

3、聯邦制的多元性與包容性大,必須考慮到各州或不同種族團體為特色的社會政策,例如加拿大魁北克。

4、聯邦系統鼓勵地區性人民參與政府的統制工作;解決單一政府中區域性人民的民主參與不足夠問題。

5、聯邦系統可避免單一政府中,較大地區、種族團體或強勢利益團體對於少數民族、弱勢團體形成利益分配不平均問題。



三、Confederations邦聯政府:權力是在主權的國家,而且聯盟本身掌有權力,而在之上還有一個政府擁有界定的權力。邦聯系統本質上相較於中央政府權力是較為薄弱的,不能強迫其他同邦聯的國家履行契約,對於利益與國外貿力也無約束力,沒友直接向人民課稅的權力也不能強迫同邦聯的國家提供中央政府所需財源,還有無權規定同邦聯的其他國家的責任。例如獨立國協、歐盟。

1、彼此同盟是基於共同防禦,對自由的保證、共有的幸福,如美國建國初的邦聯條款。

2、中央政府權力薄弱。

3、中央政府不能創造統一的國家意志與國家計畫。

4、雖然沒有國家共識,但可能出現州際合作的強大聯盟。

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聯邦主義在歷史上的一些改變

Dual Federalism:雙重的聯邦主義 19世紀~1920s

 聯邦與州政府的功能權責,理論上是有所區隔且無合作關係的。

Cooperative Federalism:合作式聯邦主義 1930s~1950s

 中央、州、地方相互合作解決共同問題,1930s-1950s因經濟大恐慌實施新政而盛行。

Creative Federalism:創造性聯邦主義 1960s

 各政府間共同參與規劃與決策。

New Federalism:新聯邦主義 1970s

 權力下放,歸還權利與責任於州政府,並減少聯邦政府在國家政策上的角色。

New New Federalism:新新聯邦主義 1980s tio present

 經濟導向,運用財稅分層的方法減少地方政府的財政負擔,推出府際整頓的新政策。





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Picket Fence Federalism:樁欄式的聯邦主義

 在政府政策管理方面,不只要考慮專業人員(specialist),亦要考慮各方面皆略有接觸的通才人員(generalist)。樁欄式的聯邦主義,其意為某意像最普遍地用於此系統的過程中,此概念意含在政府多樣的層級中,官僚體系中之專業人才行使相當大的權力。專業人才如同柵欄的縱向尖樁,屬於垂直的權力結構;而通才人員(如市長、州長、總統等)則如柵欄的橫向木欄,是水平的結構,兩者間似乎有所衝突。

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 在政府政策管理方面,不只要考慮專業人員(specialist),亦要考慮各方面皆略有接觸的通才人員(generalist)。樁欄式的聯邦主義,其意為某意像最普遍地用於此系統的過程中,此概念意含在政府多樣的層級中,官僚體系中之專業人才行使相當大的權力。專業人才如同柵欄的縱向尖樁,屬於垂直的權力結構;而通才人員(如市長、州長、總統等)則如柵欄的橫向木欄,是水平的結構,兩者間似乎有所衝突。



Councils of Government:政府議會 COG

 肇因於某些交通或治安等的問題,往往涉及區域性關係,故虛設一組織來統一合作與協調。

 因為一個政府的轄區可能涵蓋多重的區域,為便於解決發展、運輸、和其他各種問題,故允許各區域提議於各政府之評議會中討論。

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 肇因於某些交通或治安等的問題,往往涉及區域性關係,故虛設一組織來統一合作與協調。 因為一個政府的轄區可能涵蓋多重的區域,為便於解決發展、運輸、和其他各種問題,故允許各區域提議於各政府之評議會中討論。



The Public Choice Solution:公共選擇


 在1990s的共和國會延續了1980s的雷根革命與新加於公共行政學的公共選擇理論接軌。

 公共選擇理論對福利經濟學的概念:若私有市場失敗,政府必介入以實現公眾利益。

 公共選擇理論質疑政府的決定是不是足以代表大多數人的期望。

 指出政府基本上缺乏效率及誘因去執行,除非影響到他們的執行計畫或預算增加。

 公共選擇理論認為應將政策的執行放於最低層政府。

 低層政府能將更多的行動實行、真實的競爭及革新。

 民眾也可以用腳投票去選擇、比較各區的租稅及政府提供的勞務品質。

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The Origins of Public Management:公開管理的起源

Civilization and administration have always gone hand in hand.
文化的發展和管理學總是齊頭並進的。

Since ancient times, a city was defined by the walls created for its defense.
從很久以前,一個城市的範圍便是由防衛它的城牆所界定。

Even today many municipalities will award someone a key to thecity in symbolic remembrance of when the only way into a city was through a locked gate in the wall.
即使至今仍有許多大城市會頒發市鑰給對該市作出卓越貢獻的個人;這在古時候是用來開啟僅能進入此城的唯一城門上的鎖。



This meant that once primitive tribes gathered in cities-when they literally became civilized (meaning to live in cities)-they had to besufficiently organized for war to build their stronghold and defend it from attackers.
這也代表著一旦草莽部落有了組織並集合在一起形成城市的時候,他們必須要自行建立可供防守的要寨,並擊退四方的來犯者。

This necessitated a sophisticated system of administration.
這個需求必需要有一個完善的管理系統才能完成。

Cities without walls only became possible in relatively recent times, when an overarching state authority was able to impose peace over alarge area.
只有在這幾世紀,沒有城牆的城市才因為上層洲際組織能管控大面積區域下和平而出現。



Thus the profession of management began and developed as the profession of arms.
這就是管理被當成一種專業的學說的起源–後來被發展成為專業的戰爭。

To the extent that the history of the world is the history of warfare, then it is also the history of public administration-because war at the state level is quite literally not possible without an effective systemof public administration behind it.
廣義一點來說,世界的歷史就是一部由戰爭組成的歷史;而也可以看作是一部大眾管理學的歷史,因為缺少了有效的大眾管理學,就絕對不可能會有大型戰役的發生。

Military officers were the first public administrators.
軍隊中的管控者就是大眾管理人的先驅。

Societies beyond the extended family only became possible with the rise of an officer class.
延伸超過家庭範圍的社會組織只有在管控者層級的出現後才可能被達成。

Thus the first armies were mobs with managers.
所以說第一隻軍隊僅是一群有管理者的暴民。



Only gradually did these mob managers develop the organizational skills to command large armies and rule large areas.
這些暴民管理者漸漸的學會命令大群軍隊以及管理廣大區域所需要的技能。

These early martial skills constitute the most basic elements of all administrative processes.
這些早期的軍事化技能中包含了所有管理流程的最基本元素。

Hierarchy, line and staff personnel, logistics, and communications were all highly developed by ancient armies.
階級制度、命令層階、後勤物流以及通訊等技能都早被古代軍隊廣為應用。

Even reform is of military origin.
甚至改革(reform)這個詞也是由軍隊中起始。

After all, it means to once again (the "re") organize the ranks (the "from") for an additional assault-whether on another army or on a difficult management problem.
畢竟這代表著再次組織起階層,無論是對另一隻軍隊或是另一個困難的管理問題發動攻擊。



And there is hardly any core concept in modern strategic thought that had not been anticipated by Sun-Tzu in ancient China.
幾乎所有的現代戰略核心概念都來自於中國古代的孫子(孫子兵法)。

The word strategy itself comes from the ancient Greek meaning "the art of the general." 
而戰略這個英文字的字根來自於古希臘,意指「成為將軍的藝術」。



The vocabulary of public administration is so heavily indebted to its military origins that the field would be literally tongue-tied without it.
公眾管理的大部分詞彙都多少有軍中的淵源,要完全捨棄的話可能會只剩一個空殼。

Next time you see an organization's slogan (such as New Hampshire's "Live Free or Die") printed on a sheet of its letterhead, remember that "quality first" of some other inane would-be motivator had its beginnings as a war cry of the Highland clans of Scotland.?
下次你在某公司的信紙或傳單上看到「品質第一」或其他聳動的標語時,請記得這些鼓舞人心的話可以追溯到蘇格蘭高地部族的戰吼。



If you don't get what you initially want and go for your fall-back position, remember that fall-backs were prepared fortified sites that soldiers ran to once the enemy broke through their first line of defense.
若你無法達成主要目標,不得不退而求取次要(fall-back)目標時;請記得 fall-back原先指的是野戰軍前線被突破時退守的壕溝。

If you are in an organization's rear echelon, console yourself with the fact that the French are to blame because they used their word for the rung of a ladder--echelon--to describe parallel military formations.
如果你是某組織中的預備隊員(rear echelon),請記得要怪罪法國人;因為是他們將法語中的階梯一字引用來描述軍中的階層組織。



And of you cherish a particular tax loophole, remember that a loophole was a small opening in a fort for soldiers to shoot out of, or use as a means of escape, depending upon the circumstances.
若你有慣用的稅務漏洞(loophole),請記得 loophole 原先是指碉堡上供士兵對外射擊的小洞,或是指狹小的逃脫通道。

They are still means of escape--from taxes.
而這字至今仍有逃脫的含意–逃稅。



The Continuing Influence of Ancient Rome:古代羅馬的持續性影響

In his landmark 1941 book, The managerial Revolution, James Burnham contended that as the control of large corporations passes from the hands of the owners into the hands of professional administrators, the society's new governing class would be the possessors not of wealth but of technical expertise.
在他1941年的巨作「管理的革命」(The Managerial Revolution)一書中,James Burnham聲稱當大型企業的管理權由擁有者移轉到專業管理人手中時,社會的新掌控階層也應由財富的掌控者轉由技術專精的人來擔任。

But Burnham was two millennia off in his analysis because this managerial changeover form those of wealth and power to those of professional expertise first occurred in the ancient Roman army.
但是Burnham和他的分析其實已經晚了兩個世紀–早在古代羅馬軍隊中就已經實現將管理權則由錢權人士手上轉交給專精人士的過渡。



According to military historian John Keegan, "The Roman centurions, long-service unit leaders drawn from the best of the enlisted ranks, formed the first body of professional fighting officers known to history.
根據軍事歷史學家John Keegan的說法:「羅馬軍的百人長們是由長期服役的各單位領導人士中選出,組成了目前所知歷史上第一個專業戰鬥管理團。」

This middle-management class transmitted from generation to generation the technical skills and discipline by which Rome dominated the world for five centuries.
這個中階管理階層代代傳承著讓羅馬軍隊之所以能稱霸五個世紀之久的管理技術以及律令。

They were the managers who allowed the patrician governing class to exercise actual command.
多虧了他們,政治貴族階級的命令才得以實踐。。

They were motivated by loyalty to their legion, pride in their profession, regular pay, and retirement payments that were an additional inducement to good behavior.
他們因為有著對軍團的忠心、對自我專精技術的自豪、定時的薪餉和退役補貼而能保持著他們良好的傳承。

Here is the beginning of the modern merit system.
而這就是現代勳章制度的起源。

The West would not see its lie again until Napoleon, espousing the best in French revolutionary idealism, announced "careers open to talent" in both the civilian and military spheres.
西方沒有看到這件事的重要性,直到理想化法國革命的信徒拿破崙才對軍民兩界提出了「有能者任之」的宣言。

The regulating of pay and pensions in ancient Rome was the key to maintaining the army-and to this end the first civil service was created (by the Emperor Augustus Caesar ) to raise the taxes necessary to support the legions.
古時羅馬人用定期薪資和補貼當作維持軍隊的主要手腕–而至今第一個公家服務就是為了支持軍團開銷而提出的增加賦稅。



Thus out of military necessity was born civilian public administration.
由此,軍團之外的公眾管理需求正式誕生。

The same Augustus would boast that "I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble. While spoken by an emperor, these are also the words of a proud municipal public works administrator.
而曾吹擂說「我將羅馬由瓦礫中築成寶石」的奧古斯都大帝雖然的確是個皇帝,但這些話也同樣的彰顯出他自豪為一個內政公眾事務的管理者。





While many ancient kingdoms, such as Egypt and China, had sophisticated administrative institutions, the core features of modern public administration in the Western world were first found in the Roman Empire.
當許多古代王朝都有著複雜的行政機關架構–如埃及與中國;西方第一個現代公共事務的核心卻是由羅馬帝國建立的。

The Roman state was depersonalized.
羅馬的國家體制成功的達到了去個人化。

It had existed independent of any political leader or king; it was not "owned" by anyone.
這體制獨立存在,不受控於任何單一政治領袖或國王,這體制也不由任何單一人士所擁有。

Significantly, the state's public finances were separate from the private fundsof its leadership.
尤其值得注意的,這體制下的公眾預算是完全獨立於領導階層的私有資金。



Second, it made use of a centralized hierarchical structure.
其次,這體制切實的運用了中央集權下各階層的架構。

At the top was the central government, then the province, and finally the diocese.
在最頂端是中央政府,下層是各省治區,其次才是各小轄區。

These structures are still familiar, still in use.
這個架構如今聽來依舊熟悉,因為仍在運作中。

Finally, the Romans introduced several units of functionalspecialization that form the heart of most modern public administrative systems.
最後一點,羅馬人導入了幾種特定功能的職業區隔,而這些職業共同組成了現代公眾管理的核心。

They had organizational units for military affairs, finance, justice,and police.
羅馬人有專門負責軍事方面、經濟方面、法治方面以及監察方面的專業人士。

This last function was so broadly conceived that it included transportation, health, education, agriculture, and commerce.
最後一項更是被極大的推廣,至今甚至包含了運輸、健康、教育、農務以及貿易方面。



Ever since the time of ancient Rome, young men have viewed a stint of service as a military officer as a logical prelude to larger public service or to greater political office.
自從古羅馬起,年輕人就將能成為軍中軍官當作是理所當然為大眾或是為更高層政治組織服務的榮耀。

Indeed, during the days of the Roman Republic it was a condition of elective off ice that a candidate have a decade of military service.
其實,在羅馬共和時期中,要成為政治上候選者的一個必要條件就是至少曾在軍中服務超過十年。

Not only was this a seasoning period for youths, it was the only social institution that offered systematic training in  administration.
這不僅是為了給予年輕人一個歷練成熟的過程,也因為軍中是整個羅馬裡唯一提供完整且有系統的管理教育的地方。



It was thought reasonable that those who could demonstrate the ability to command and administer should be considered legitimate candidates.
在當時,只有曾展現過管控與管理能力的人,才能被大眾視為合格的候選人。

This is still true today.
這一點至今依舊如此。

Most U.S. presidents and countless lesser politicians have used their military experience as a springboard for their political careers.
大多數的美國總統與無數的下層政治人士們都曾利用他們各自的軍中資歷當作政治生涯的跳板。

Has your member of congress served in the armed forces?
不信嗎?不妨看看你本州的參議員當過兵沒有? 

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